Good, wrong or totally wrong part 2
In Newsletter 75, March 2006, I reported that three different types of errors can be distinguished: design errors, typographical errors and incorrect use in exhibitions. The first two types of error occur during the manufacturing of the stamps, the third by its use. However, there is one type of error that has not been mentioned in the article: perforation and cutting errors.
More about that later, first some more about misprints. And in particular about color, or rather the lack thereof. Where in the previous article extra ink drops or smudges on stamps have been discussed, here stamps which are completely lacking in one color get the attention. Best example is the stamp with missing helmet from Israel.
Not only stamps can miss a color, also postal stationery can suffer from printing errors. Compare the image of this Thai postcard with the card in your collection, and you'll immediately see that the background color of the vehicle is missing.
Another type of error that occurs in printing, is a paper fold. During printing, the printing sheet can get folded. If the sheet is smoothed later, part is unprinted or the print shifted.
Next there are perforation and cutting errors. This type of error occurs during the perforation in case of stamps, or the cutting of postal stationery. In general: when individual pieces are made from printed sheets.
In rare cases perforation faults are created deliberately. A good example is the so-called Farouk perforation. During the reign of King Farouk of Egypt, from 1936 to 1952, it was customary for the manufacturer to make one or two sheets of each stamp with oblique perforation for his own collection.
In most cases perforation errors occur by chance and are only to be found in a few stamps or sheets in which the perforation is totally or partly missing, or in the wrong place, through the stamp image.
Examples of this last category are the stamps of the USA (above) or Iran (below).
But as I said, sometimes a perforation is missing totally or in part. Stamps where the perforation is completely absent, may be confused with non-perforated issues or color tests, although the latter often have colors that differ from the final versions. Partially missing perforation is clearly recognizable.
Perforation below the stamps is missing
On the Russian stamp below on the left, the perforation on the left side is missing. To make that appendices are inextricably linked to the stamp the perforation between the two is sometimes deliberately omitted. A good example is the non-issued stamp from 1942 of Italy, with the Moto Guzzi and the propaganda slogan "Victory is ours".
Stamps with completely lacking perforation (and not being a non-perforated issue) are harder to find. Toothless specimens which occur during the design and proof printing prior to the actual production of the stamps, such as design proofs on actual stamp size, color proofs, perforation proofs, test paper, etc. are part of many collections.
'die-proof’ with autograph of the designer and embossed imprint of the printer (lower left corner)
Of this approved design only around 10 species exist
Examples of color proofs:
Camerun: dieproof blue in combination
with red. Issue: multicolored
<-- Poland: dieproof brown. Issue: dark sienna
Cutting errors arise when stamps or cards, instead of being perforated, are cut to separate them. This occurs in stamps that are cut from a sheet for use in stamp booklets, but also in postal stationery cut from a sheet of eight as shown below.
On the normal card the * is on the left
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